Strategi Amerika Terhadap Asia Tenggara Mendukung “Strategi Penyeimbangan”

Jonni Mahroza


Abstrak -- Salah satu bagian penting dari kepentingan strategis AS di Asia terletak di kawasan Asia Tenggara, yang semakin terancam oleh pengaruh dan dominasi China; sementara cengkeraman Cina di wilayah ini menguat, AS tampaknya melonggarkan cengkeramannya. Setidaknya ada dua isu utama yang berkontribusi terhadap perubahan ini. Yang pertama adalah ketidakpastian dalam persengketaan di Laut Cina Selatan (LCS); tekanan AS pada Tiongkok baik secara diplomatis maupun kehadiran militer hanya menunjukkan dampak terbatas, dan kurang meyakinkan bagi para pemimpin di Asia Tenggara. Dan yang kedua adalah strategi AS yang tidak jelas untuk mengimbangi peningkatan hubungan ekonomi China dengan kawasan ini. Kebijakan AS dalam dua masalah ini akan menentukan masa depan hubungan antara AS dan kawasan Asia Tenggara, dan secara signifikan mempengaruhi strategi rebalancing AS di Asia, makanya, harus ditangani dengan tepat. Studi ini menemukan bahwa AS harus mengadopsi strategi TAMPIL BESAR tetapi DAMAI di Laut Cina Selatan, dan menjadi mitra LEBIH BAIK untuk negara-negara Asia Tenggara. Inilah strategi kemenangan AS yang lebih mungkin terhadap Asia Tenggara, dan yang akan menopang strategi rebalancing AS di Asia Pasifik.

Kata Kunci: Strategi Kemenangan dan Penyeimbangan, Wilayah Asia Tenggara, Kekuasaan dalam Hubungan Internasional


Abstract -- An important part of the U.S.’ broader strategic interests in Asia lays in the Southeast Asian region, which is increasingly threatened by China’s growing influence and domination; while the China’s grip on the region is strengthening, the U.S seems to be loosening its grip. At least there are two central issues that have contributed to the change. The first is an uncertainty in the South China Sea (SCS) dispute; the U.S.’ pressures on China both diplomatically and by military presence have shown only a limited impact, and have been less convincing to the Southeast Asian leaders. And the second is an unclear strategy of the U.S. to balance against the growing importance of China’s economic ties with the region. The outcome of these two issues would determine the future relations between the U.S. and the Southeast Asian region, and significantly affect the U.S. rebalancing strategy in Asia, therefore, should be properly addressed. The study found that the U.S. should adopt the strategy of going BIG but PEACEFUL in the South China Sea, and being a BETTER partner for the Southeast Asian countries. This seems more possible to be a winning strategy towards Southeast Asia, and critical to sustain the U.S.’s rebalancing strategy in Asia Pacific.”

Keywords: Winning and Rebalancing Strategy, Southeast Asia Region, Power in International Relations

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