Diplomasi Pertahanan dan Diplomasi Hak Asasi Manusia Sebagai Penanggulangan Perdagangan Manusia (Studi Industri Perikanan Indonesia)

Cindy Karina Kustiari, Makarim Wibisono, Tri Legionosuko

Abstract


Abstrak - Penelitian ini membahas tentang diplomasi pertahanan dan diplomasi HAM yang dilakukan Indonesia sebagai penanggulangan kejahatan perdagangan manusia, khususnya di industri perikanan. Dalam upayanya memberantas IUU fishing di Indonesia, pemerintah menemukan fakta bahwa ternyata aktivitas tersebut tidak hanya tentang pelanggaran kedaulatan wilayah negara saja, tetapi juga tentang pelanggaran HAM. Jadi, alih-alih hanya menggolongkan IUU fishing sebagai ancaman bagi keamanan maritim, Indonesia juga menggolongkannya sebagai transnational organized crime yang mengancam keamanan individu. Beberapa wawancara dan tinjauan pustaka adalah metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini. Diplomasi pertahanan yang diiringi dengan diplomasi HAM menjadi langkah Indonesia untuk memberantas praktik perdagangan manusia dan segala bentuk perbudakan di industri perikanan. Melalui upaya-upaya diplomasi tersebut, dari tingkat bilateral, regional, hingga multilateral, Indonesia memperoleh jalinan kerja sama keamanan dengan berbagai negara lain dan berbagai organisasi internasional. Dari sisi diplomasi pertahanan, kerja sama keamanan yang dilakukan sesuai dengan alur kebijakan strategis Indonesia. Sedangkan diplomasi HAM yang dilakukan menelaah kedua aspek utama penanganan perdagangan manusia, yakni aspek HAM itu sendiri dan aspek hukumnya. Rumusan peningkatan kemampuan 3A + 1A (the ability to detect ,the ability to respond, the ability to punish, dan the ability to build perception) menjadi sasaran pencapaian upaya-upaya tersebut. Pada akhirnya, penelitian ini memberikan kesimpulan bahwa diplomasi pertahanan dan diplomasi HAM yang dilakukan pemerintah sudah cukup efektif, namun masih ditemukan beberapa kekurangan dalam implementasinya. Diharapkan penelitian ini dapat memberikan manfaat dan masukan, baik kepada para stakeholders maupun kalangan akademisi, yang sama-sama memiliki tujuan untuk membersihkan industri perikanan dari segala bentuk kejahatan kemanusiaan.

Kata kunci: perdagangan manusia, IUU fishing, diplomasi pertahanan, diplomasi HAM

 

Abstract - This research examines defense diplomacy and human rights diplomacy done by Indonesia as countermeasures to eradicate human trafficking, specifically in fishing industry. Through its war on combatting IUU fishing, the government found the fact that the crime activities were not about violation to Indonesia’s territory only, but about violation to humanity as well. So, instead of only to consider IUU fishing as threat to maritime security, Indonesia also chooses to consider it as transnational organized crime which threatens human security. Several interviews and literature reviews are the techniques used for data collection in this research. Defense diplomacy and human rights diplomacy are the actions taken by Indonesia to combat human trafficking and all slavery practices in fishing industry. Through those efforts, from bilateral, regional, to multilateral levels, Indonesia has gained several security co-operations with other countries and several international organizations. From the defense diplomacy perspective, the security co-operations are corresponding with the strategic policy of Indonesia. Whereas the human rights diplomacy focuses on its two main aspects, they are the human rights itself and the legal aspect of it. Sets of ability improvement called 3A + 1A (the ability to detect, the ability to respond, the ability to punish, and the ability to build perception) become the indicator of accomplishment. In the end, both of diplomacies have been quite effective, but some deficiensies are still found in their implementations. It is expected that this research can provide benefits and inputs, both to stakeholders and academics, who have a goal to cleanse our fishing industry from all crimes against humanity.

Keywords: human trafficking, IUU fishing, defense diplomacy, human rights diplomacy


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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v4i1.200

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