Pola Perimbangan dan Regionalisasi Sektor Pertahanan di Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Rangga Amalul Akhli, Nugraha Gumilar, Mhd Halkis

Abstract


Abstrak Tulisan ini berusaha memahami dua hal, yakni pola perimbangan dan regionalisasi sektor pertahanan di Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), sebuah organisasi regional yang beranggotakan China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan dan kemudian mengikutsertakan India serta Pakistan yang bergabung di tahun 2017. Untuk memperoleh pemahaman tentang itu, tulisan ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan telaah atas teori perimbangan milik Kenneth Waltz, Stephen Walt dan Randall Schweller. Hasil temuannya adalah (1) pola perimbangan dan regionalisasi sektor pertahanan di SCO dimulai berkat adanya persepsi ancaman yang serupa, hal ini mengkonfirmasi teori balance of threat milik Walt; (2) Pola perimbangan dapat berubah menjadi balance of power apabila terdapat tekanan-tekanan kekuatan luar pada negara anggota SCO. Kondisi itu nampak terlihat saat adanya Revolusi Tulip dan Kericuhan Adijan yang direspon oleh SCO dengan mempertontonkan latihan militer dengan skenario perbantuan dan menandatangani kerjasama dengan CSTO; (3) Terpeliharanya regionalisasi sektor pertahanan di SCO tidak terlepas dari pengaruh besar China di dalamnya. China bertindak sebagai pemegang status quo, di sisi lain negara lainnya cenderung melakukan bandwagoning terhadap China, karena dengan melakukan hal tersebut mereka dapat mendapatkan keuntungan.

Kata kunci: Teori Perimbangan, Regionalisasi sektor Pertahanan, Shanghai Cooperation Organization

 

Abstract -- This article aims to understand two points, namely the Shanghai Cooperation Organization’s (SCO) pattern of balancing and its defense regionalization. SCO is the regional organization that consists of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and followed by the two new comers: India and Pakistan in 2017. To analyze the above mentioned, this article uses qualitative method by reviewing three balancing theories introduced by Kenneth Waltz, Stephen Walt, and Randall Schweller. The findings are (1) Walt argument from balance of threat theory confirms why such states declared the SCO and its defense regionalization by emphasizing the common threat; (2) Waltz’ balance of power partially emerged when the member states received international pressures due to the Tulip Revolution and the Andijan incident. These incidents caused the SCO to hold military assistance scenario in the largest peacemission exercise at that time (2007) and signed such cooperation with Russia led millitary alliance-CSTO at the same time; (3) the regional balancing pattern cannot cover over the China’s greater role at this organization. In the SCO, China balances for its status quo preservation while the rest tend to bandwagon the emerging China power to get profit from it.

Keywords: balancing theory, defense regionalization, Shanghai Cooperation Organization


Full Text:

PDF

References


Daftar Pustaka

Aris, Stephen. 2011. Eurasion Regionalism: Shanghai Cooperation Organization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Aris, Stephen. 2013. Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Mapping Multilateralism in Transition. New York, International Peace Institute .

Börzel, Tanja A. & Risse, Thomas. 2016. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism. New York: Oxford University Press

Diehl, Paul F. 2005. The Politics of Global Governance, Edisi Ketiga. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner

Haas, Marcel de. 2016. “Wargame of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization: Drill on The Move!”, The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 29:3

Haq, Noor Ul & Mughal, Farhat Akram. 2007. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2001-2006) vol 1, IPRI Factfile.

Hughes, 2005. “Nationalism and Multilateralism in Chinese Foreign Policy: Implication for Southeast Asia”, Pacific Review.

Kagley, Charles W & Blanton, Shannon L. 2011. World Politics: Trend and Transformation, 13th Edition. Boston: Cengage Learning

Schweller, Randall. 1994. “Bandwagoning for Profit: Bringin Revitionist Sate Back In” International Security, Vol 19 No.1

Shanghai Cooperation Organization Charter, article 1.

Sheldon W. Simon. 1992. ” The Regionalization of Defence in Southeast Asia” The Pacific Riview 5:2

Tan, See Seng. 2012. Talking Their Walk? The Evolution of Defense Regionalism in Southeast Asia, Asian Security,8:3.

Tarling, Nicholas. 2006. Regionalism in Southeast Asia: To Foster The Political Will. New York: Routledge.

Walt, Stephen. 1987. The Origin of Alliances. New York: Cornell University Press .

Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Reading: Addison-Wesey Publishing Company.

Waltz, Kenneth. 2000. ”Structural Realism After The Cold War”. International Security, Vol. 25 , No. 1.

Williams, Paul D. 2008. Security Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Xiaodong, Zhao. 2012. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Counter terrorism Cooperation.Stockhom: Institute for Security and Development Policy.

Yuan, Jing-Dong. 2010. “China’s Role in Establishing and Building Shanghai Cooperation Organization”, Journal of Contemporary China. 16(67).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v4i2.323

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Ethics in Publishing

Publishing ethics refers to COPE (Commitee on Publication Ethics) and Regulation of the Head of LIPI Number 5 of 2014 concerning the Code of Ethics for Scientific Publications.

This statement outlines the ethical behavior expected of all parties. The parties are related and obedient in their respective positions and roles: authors, editorial board, peer reviewers, and publishers, who are involved in publishing articles in this journal.

Author
Authors create articles. Authors should read the policies that apply to their contributions and the author's guidelines. Once a submission has reached the review stage, authors are not allowed to withdraw it. The author accepts editorial decisions voluntarily.

Editorial Board
The editor consists of the chief editor and staff as a unit. Editors grade manuscripts on intellectual merit alone, regardless of the author's rank, title, skin color, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, nationality, or political philosophy. Corresponding authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and publishers, as appropriate, are the only parties to whom any editor and editorial staff may divulge information about manuscripts that have been submitted. The editor chooses which article to publish. When reaching a choice, the editor can consult with other editors or reviewers.

Peer Reviewers

Peer review provides an assessment of the articles submitted by the editor. The reviewer's assessment results assist the editor in editing the assessment and can also help the author improve the article through the editorial communication with the author. Any selected reviewer who believes they lack the skills necessary to evaluate a manuscript or realizes that doing so quickly is impossible should notify the editor and withdraw from the review process. The review must be carried out impartially. It would be inappropriate to criticize the author personally. Referees must clearly state their position and provide evidence to support them. Any manuscript sent to you for review should be treated with confidentiality. They cannot be discussed or shown to anyone without the editor's permission. Reviewers must indicate related published work that the author still needs to cite. Suitable quotations must support any claim that specific observations, deductions, or arguments have been recorded. Any significant overlap or resemblance between the manuscript under consideration and other published material of which the reviewer has direct knowledge must be communicated to the editor.

 

Publisher
The publisher is the institution that publishes the journal. Universitas Pertahanan Press under the Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, publisher of this Journal of Defense Diplomacy. Moral and ethical obligations as publishers are aware of and take their duties and responsibilities seriously during and throughout the publication process. For publishing journals, publishers work closely with editorial boards to facilitate communication with other journals and publishers.


Alamat Dewan Redaksi:
Alamat: Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, RT.3/RW.6, Kenari, Kec. Senen,
Kota Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10430
Email: pertahanandiplomasi@gmail.com
Website: http://jurnalprodi.idu.ac.id/index.php/DP


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Diplomasi Pertahanan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


 View My StatCounter