Pola Perimbangan dan Regionalisasi Sektor Pertahanan di Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Rangga Amalul Akhli, Nugraha Gumilar, Mhd Halkis


Abstrak Tulisan ini berusaha memahami dua hal, yakni pola perimbangan dan regionalisasi sektor pertahanan di Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), sebuah organisasi regional yang beranggotakan China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan dan kemudian mengikutsertakan India serta Pakistan yang bergabung di tahun 2017. Untuk memperoleh pemahaman tentang itu, tulisan ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan telaah atas teori perimbangan milik Kenneth Waltz, Stephen Walt dan Randall Schweller. Hasil temuannya adalah (1) pola perimbangan dan regionalisasi sektor pertahanan di SCO dimulai berkat adanya persepsi ancaman yang serupa, hal ini mengkonfirmasi teori balance of threat milik Walt; (2) Pola perimbangan dapat berubah menjadi balance of power apabila terdapat tekanan-tekanan kekuatan luar pada negara anggota SCO. Kondisi itu nampak terlihat saat adanya Revolusi Tulip dan Kericuhan Adijan yang direspon oleh SCO dengan mempertontonkan latihan militer dengan skenario perbantuan dan menandatangani kerjasama dengan CSTO; (3) Terpeliharanya regionalisasi sektor pertahanan di SCO tidak terlepas dari pengaruh besar China di dalamnya. China bertindak sebagai pemegang status quo, di sisi lain negara lainnya cenderung melakukan bandwagoning terhadap China, karena dengan melakukan hal tersebut mereka dapat mendapatkan keuntungan.

Kata kunci: Teori Perimbangan, Regionalisasi sektor Pertahanan, Shanghai Cooperation Organization


Abstract -- This article aims to understand two points, namely the Shanghai Cooperation Organization’s (SCO) pattern of balancing and its defense regionalization. SCO is the regional organization that consists of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and followed by the two new comers: India and Pakistan in 2017. To analyze the above mentioned, this article uses qualitative method by reviewing three balancing theories introduced by Kenneth Waltz, Stephen Walt, and Randall Schweller. The findings are (1) Walt argument from balance of threat theory confirms why such states declared the SCO and its defense regionalization by emphasizing the common threat; (2) Waltz’ balance of power partially emerged when the member states received international pressures due to the Tulip Revolution and the Andijan incident. These incidents caused the SCO to hold military assistance scenario in the largest peacemission exercise at that time (2007) and signed such cooperation with Russia led millitary alliance-CSTO at the same time; (3) the regional balancing pattern cannot cover over the China’s greater role at this organization. In the SCO, China balances for its status quo preservation while the rest tend to bandwagon the emerging China power to get profit from it.

Keywords: balancing theory, defense regionalization, Shanghai Cooperation Organization

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v4i2.323


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