Analisis Diplomasi Pertahanan Negara Dalam Pandangan Chanakya (Studi Teks Arthashastra Sebagai Dasar Strategi Diplomasi Pertahanan)

Ni Nyoman Ayu Nikki Avalokitesvari, I Wayan Midhio, Triyoga Budi Prasetyo

Abstract


Abstrak -- Diplomasi pertahanan merupakan kajian baru dalam ilmu HI, utamanya diplomasi. Hal ini membuat kajian-kajian yang berkembang dalam diplomasi pertahanan masih minim dan didominasi oleh konsep-konsep western. Padahal hal ini berpotensi menimbulkan bias teoretis jika diterapkan di negara-negara timur. Filsafat timur sesungguhnya memberikan banyak pilihan konsep terkait diplomasi dan ilmu pertahanan, seperti dalam Arthashastra karya Chanakya. Penelitian ini membahas mengenai analisa konsep diplomasi pertahanan negara dalam pandangan Chankya melalui karyanya, Arthashastra. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana konsep pemetaan ancaman, statecraft dan juga diplomasi dalam Arthashastra dapat menjadi dasar strategi dan paradigma dalam Diplomasi Pertahanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran mengenai konsep pemetaan ancaman, statecraft dan diplomasi dalam Arthashastra sebagai dasar strategi dan paradigma dalam diplomasi pertahanan. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisa isi kualitatif menggunakan analisis wacana kritis dan hermeneutika Gadamer. Konsep Diplomasi pertahanan dalam Pandangan Chanakya digali dari beberapa teori besar dalam Arthashastra mengenai pemetaan ancaman (Teori Mandala); mengenai statecraft (Teori Saptanga); dan mengenai Diplomasi (Teori Mantrashakti, āguya dan catur upaya). Pemetaan ancaman dalam teori mandala dipandang masih tradisional dan bersifat military heavy. Konsep statecraft dalam teori saptangga sebagian besar masih relevan, walau ada satu elemen yang perlu dimaknai kembali. Konsep diplomasi dalam teori mantrashakti, āguya dan catur upaya sebagian besar masih relevan dan dapat dijadikan dasar dalam paradigma diplomasi pertahanan. Secara umum konsep diplomasi pertahanan chanakya memiliki banyak kemiripan dengan diplomasi militer, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai acuan dalam strategi diplomasi militer. Namun untuk bisa diaplikasikan pada diplomasi pertahanan saat ini diperlukan penyesuaian terutama mengenai keterlibatan elemen nir-militer.

Kata kunci: Diplomasi Pertahanan, Chanakya Arthashastra, Teori Mandala, Teori Saptanga, Mantrashakti, āguya, Catur Upaya.

 

Abstract -- Defense diplomacy is a new study in International Relations science, mainly diplomacy. This makes studies that develop in defense diplomacy are still mildly and dominated by western concepts. Even though this has the potential to cause theoretical bias if applied in eastern countries. Eastern philosophy actually provides many choices of concepts related to diplomacy and defense science, such as in Chanakya's Arthashastra. This study discusses the analysis of state defense diplomacy concept in the course of Chankya through his work, Arthashastra. The research questions in this study are how the concept of threat mapping, statecraft and diplomacy in the Arthashastra can be the basis of strategies and paradigms in Defense Diplomacy. This study aims to provide an overview of the concept of threat mapping, statecraft and diplomacy in Arthashastra as the basis of strategies and paradigms in defense diplomacy. The method used is qualitative content analysis using critical discourse analysis and Gadamer’s hermeneutics. The concept of defense diplomacy in the course of Chanakya was explored from several major theories in the Arthashastra concerning the mapping of threats (Mandala Theory); regarding statecraft (Saptanga Theory); and the Diplomacy (Theory of Mantrashakti, āguya and catur upaya). Mapping threats in the mandala theory is seen as still traditional and military heavy. The concept of statecraft in the saptangga theory is still largely relevant, although there is one element that needs to be reinterpreted. The concept of diplomacy in the mantrashakti, āguya and catur upaya theory is still largely relevant and can be used as a basis in the defense diplomacy paradigm. In general, the concept of defense diplomacy has many similarities to military diplomacy, so that it can be used as a reference in military diplomacy strategies. However, to be applied to defense diplomacy, adjustments are currently needed, especially regarding the involvement of non-military elements.

Keywords: Defense Diplomacy, Chanakya Arthashastra, Mandala theory, Saptanga theory, Mantrashakti, Ṣāḍguṇya, Catur Upaya.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Daftar Pustaka

Buku

Col. Harjeet Singh, The Military Strategy of The Arthashastra, (New Delhi: Pentagon Press, 2012) hlm 32

Kautilya. 2003. Arthasastra, Surabaya: Paramita.

L.N.. Rangarajan. The Arthashastra: Edited, Rearranged, Translated and Introduced. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books India Ltd. 1992 hlm. 10

Miriam Budiarjo, Dasar-dasar Ilmu Politik, (Jakarta, Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008) hlm.53

Pasal 1 Konvensi Montevido dalam Lazarusli, Budi dan Syahmin A.K. 1986. Suksesi Negara dalam Hubungannya Dengan Perjanjian Internasional. Bandung: Remaja Karya. Hlm. 7

RP Kangle, The Arthashastra Part II (Delhi: Motilal Banardisass, 1992), hlm 318. Adhikarana 6. Bab 2. Sutra 13

Sukra, Sukraniti, (Mumbai: Khemraj Shrikrisnadass, 2012) chapter 1, sutra 62

Susanto, Edi. Studi Hermeneutika: Kajian Pengantar. Jakarta: Kencana

Jurnal

Amitav Acharya, “Dialogue and Discovery: In Search of International Relations Theories Beyond the West”, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Volume 39, Nomor 3, May 2011, hlm. 619–637

Mishra, Malay. 2017. “Unique Approach to Comprehensive National Power through the Lens of Kautilya’s Arthashastra.” Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Vol. CXLVII No. 607, January-March 2017

Satish Karad, “Perspective of Kautilya’s Foreign Policy: An Ideal of State Affairs”, Modern Research Studies. Volume 2. Nomor 2, June 2015. Hlm. 322-332

Website

https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-Mandal-theory-of-Kautilya

http://www.defencestudies.co/2017/11/kautilyas-saptang-theory-of-state.html

Sumber lain

Vinay Vittal, “Kautilya’s Arthashastra: A Timeless Grand Strategy”, Tesis Magister, (Alabama: School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Maxwell Airforce Base) 2011, hlm. 11.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v4i2.324

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Ethics in Publishing

Publishing ethics refers to COPE (Commitee on Publication Ethics) and Regulation of the Head of LIPI Number 5 of 2014 concerning the Code of Ethics for Scientific Publications.

This statement outlines the ethical behavior expected of all parties. The parties are related and obedient in their respective positions and roles: authors, editorial board, peer reviewers, and publishers, who are involved in publishing articles in this journal.

Author
Authors create articles. Authors should read the policies that apply to their contributions and the author's guidelines. Once a submission has reached the review stage, authors are not allowed to withdraw it. The author accepts editorial decisions voluntarily.

Editorial Board
The editor consists of the chief editor and staff as a unit. Editors grade manuscripts on intellectual merit alone, regardless of the author's rank, title, skin color, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, nationality, or political philosophy. Corresponding authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and publishers, as appropriate, are the only parties to whom any editor and editorial staff may divulge information about manuscripts that have been submitted. The editor chooses which article to publish. When reaching a choice, the editor can consult with other editors or reviewers.

Peer Reviewers

Peer review provides an assessment of the articles submitted by the editor. The reviewer's assessment results assist the editor in editing the assessment and can also help the author improve the article through the editorial communication with the author. Any selected reviewer who believes they lack the skills necessary to evaluate a manuscript or realizes that doing so quickly is impossible should notify the editor and withdraw from the review process. The review must be carried out impartially. It would be inappropriate to criticize the author personally. Referees must clearly state their position and provide evidence to support them. Any manuscript sent to you for review should be treated with confidentiality. They cannot be discussed or shown to anyone without the editor's permission. Reviewers must indicate related published work that the author still needs to cite. Suitable quotations must support any claim that specific observations, deductions, or arguments have been recorded. Any significant overlap or resemblance between the manuscript under consideration and other published material of which the reviewer has direct knowledge must be communicated to the editor.

 

Publisher
The publisher is the institution that publishes the journal. Universitas Pertahanan Press under the Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, publisher of this Journal of Defense Diplomacy. Moral and ethical obligations as publishers are aware of and take their duties and responsibilities seriously during and throughout the publication process. For publishing journals, publishers work closely with editorial boards to facilitate communication with other journals and publishers.


Alamat Dewan Redaksi:
Alamat: Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, RT.3/RW.6, Kenari, Kec. Senen,
Kota Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10430
Email: pertahanandiplomasi@gmail.com
Website: http://jurnalprodi.idu.ac.id/index.php/DP


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Diplomasi Pertahanan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


 View My StatCounter