Analisis Diplomasi Pertahanan Negara Dalam Pandangan Chanakya (Studi Teks Arthashastra Sebagai Dasar Strategi Diplomasi Pertahanan)

Ni Nyoman Ayu Nikki Avalokitesvari, I Wayan Midhio, Triyoga Budi Prasetyo


Abstrak -- Diplomasi pertahanan merupakan kajian baru dalam ilmu HI, utamanya diplomasi. Hal ini membuat kajian-kajian yang berkembang dalam diplomasi pertahanan masih minim dan didominasi oleh konsep-konsep western. Padahal hal ini berpotensi menimbulkan bias teoretis jika diterapkan di negara-negara timur. Filsafat timur sesungguhnya memberikan banyak pilihan konsep terkait diplomasi dan ilmu pertahanan, seperti dalam Arthashastra karya Chanakya. Penelitian ini membahas mengenai analisa konsep diplomasi pertahanan negara dalam pandangan Chankya melalui karyanya, Arthashastra. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana konsep pemetaan ancaman, statecraft dan juga diplomasi dalam Arthashastra dapat menjadi dasar strategi dan paradigma dalam Diplomasi Pertahanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran mengenai konsep pemetaan ancaman, statecraft dan diplomasi dalam Arthashastra sebagai dasar strategi dan paradigma dalam diplomasi pertahanan. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisa isi kualitatif menggunakan analisis wacana kritis dan hermeneutika Gadamer. Konsep Diplomasi pertahanan dalam Pandangan Chanakya digali dari beberapa teori besar dalam Arthashastra mengenai pemetaan ancaman (Teori Mandala); mengenai statecraft (Teori Saptanga); dan mengenai Diplomasi (Teori Mantrashakti, āguya dan catur upaya). Pemetaan ancaman dalam teori mandala dipandang masih tradisional dan bersifat military heavy. Konsep statecraft dalam teori saptangga sebagian besar masih relevan, walau ada satu elemen yang perlu dimaknai kembali. Konsep diplomasi dalam teori mantrashakti, āguya dan catur upaya sebagian besar masih relevan dan dapat dijadikan dasar dalam paradigma diplomasi pertahanan. Secara umum konsep diplomasi pertahanan chanakya memiliki banyak kemiripan dengan diplomasi militer, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai acuan dalam strategi diplomasi militer. Namun untuk bisa diaplikasikan pada diplomasi pertahanan saat ini diperlukan penyesuaian terutama mengenai keterlibatan elemen nir-militer.

Kata kunci: Diplomasi Pertahanan, Chanakya Arthashastra, Teori Mandala, Teori Saptanga, Mantrashakti, āguya, Catur Upaya.


Abstract -- Defense diplomacy is a new study in International Relations science, mainly diplomacy. This makes studies that develop in defense diplomacy are still mildly and dominated by western concepts. Even though this has the potential to cause theoretical bias if applied in eastern countries. Eastern philosophy actually provides many choices of concepts related to diplomacy and defense science, such as in Chanakya's Arthashastra. This study discusses the analysis of state defense diplomacy concept in the course of Chankya through his work, Arthashastra. The research questions in this study are how the concept of threat mapping, statecraft and diplomacy in the Arthashastra can be the basis of strategies and paradigms in Defense Diplomacy. This study aims to provide an overview of the concept of threat mapping, statecraft and diplomacy in Arthashastra as the basis of strategies and paradigms in defense diplomacy. The method used is qualitative content analysis using critical discourse analysis and Gadamer’s hermeneutics. The concept of defense diplomacy in the course of Chanakya was explored from several major theories in the Arthashastra concerning the mapping of threats (Mandala Theory); regarding statecraft (Saptanga Theory); and the Diplomacy (Theory of Mantrashakti, āguya and catur upaya). Mapping threats in the mandala theory is seen as still traditional and military heavy. The concept of statecraft in the saptangga theory is still largely relevant, although there is one element that needs to be reinterpreted. The concept of diplomacy in the mantrashakti, āguya and catur upaya theory is still largely relevant and can be used as a basis in the defense diplomacy paradigm. In general, the concept of defense diplomacy has many similarities to military diplomacy, so that it can be used as a reference in military diplomacy strategies. However, to be applied to defense diplomacy, adjustments are currently needed, especially regarding the involvement of non-military elements.

Keywords: Defense Diplomacy, Chanakya Arthashastra, Mandala theory, Saptanga theory, Mantrashakti, Ṣāḍguṇya, Catur Upaya.

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