Peran Diplomasi Pertahanan Dalam Menjaga Perbatasan Maritim Indonesia – Malaysia di Kepulauan Riau Guna Mencegah Perdagangan Orang

Fiany Intan Vandini, Rodon Pedrason, Aris Arif Mundayat

Abstract


Abstrak - Kajian ini memfokuskan pada diplomasi pertahanan yang dilakukan oleh TNI AL, Badan Keamanan Laut (Bakamla) serta Kementerian dan Lembaga terkait dalam menjaga perbatasan untuk mencegah terjadinya perdagangan orang. Perdagangan orang merupakan salah satu ancaman bagi pertahanan nirmiliter, dimana melibatkan keselamatan segenap bangsa, salah satunya adalah pekerja migran Indonesia. Diplomasi pertahanan untuk aspek tersebut telah dilakukan Malaysia, namun pelaksanaannya belum maksimal karena belum diatur dalam satu payung hukum yang mengkoordinasi seluruh kegiatan kerjasama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis bagaimana peran diplomasi pertahanan Indo nesia dalam menjaga wilayah perbatasan maritim antara Indonesia dan Malaysia. Selain itu juga menganalisis aspek confidence building measures dan capacity building bagi pihak Indonesia. Analisis juga mencakup aspek koordinasi Kementerian dan Lembaga terkait dalam mencegah terjadinya perdagangan orang yang dialami oleh pekerja migran Indonesia. Metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus merupakan desain penelitian yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Metode wawancara terhadap narasumber serta studi literatur digunakan dalam teknik pengumpulan data. Untuk memeriksa keabsahan data digunakan triangulasi antar peneliti dan triangulasi sumber. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peran diplomasi pertahanan dalam menjaga wilayah perbatasan maritim antara Indonesia dan Malaysia telah meningkatkan confidence building antara Indonesia dan Malaysia, namun capacity building belum secara maksimal terbangun karena adanya beberapa kendala. Sementara itu, koordinasi Kementerian dan Lembaga sudah ada, namun belum dilakukan secara maksimal karena belum adanya kesepakatan dan payung hukum yang melandasi koordinasi atau kerjasama tersebut. Kajian ini memberi sumbangan bahwa peran diplomasi pertahanan merupakan pendekatan yang penting guna mencegah terjadinya perdagangan orang melalui penjagaan keamanan di perbatasan laut.

Kata kunci: Diplomasi Pertahanan, Peran, Perbatasan Maritim, Pekerja Migran Indonesia, Perdagangan Orang

                                                                  

Abstract - This study focuses on the defense diplomacy carried out by Indonesian Navy, Indonesian Maritime Security Agency (Bakamla) and to the related Ministry and Institutions in guarding borders to prevent human trafficking. Human trafficking is one of the threats to non-military defense, which involves the safety of the nations, for instance, Indonesian migrant workers. Defense diplomacy in this aspect has been carried out by Malaysia, but the implementations has not been maximized yet because it has not been regulated in the legal law which is coordinating all operations activities. The aims of this study is to analyse how the role of defense diplomacy in guarding the maritime border areas between Indonesia and Malaysia. In addition, this study aims to analyse the aspect of confidence building measures and capacity building for Indonesia. The analysis also includes the aspects of coordination of relevant Ministries and Institutions in preventing the occurence of criminal acts of human trafficking experienced by Indonesian migrant workers. This study use qualitative method with case study approach. Interview and literature studies has been used as data collection technique. The inter-researcher and source triangulation has been used to check the validity of the study. The result shows that the role of defense diplomacy in guarding the maritime border between Indonesia and Malaysia had increased the confidence building measures between Indonesia and Malaysia, but the capacity building had not yet been maximally build due to several constraints. Meanwhile, the coordination of Ministries and Institutions already exists, but has not been carried out optimally because there is no agreement and legal law that underlies about the coordination or cooperation. This study contributes that the role of defense diplomacy is an important approach to prevent human trafficking through security at maritime borders.

Keywords: Defense Diplomacy, Role, Maritime Borders, Indonesian Migrant Workers, Human Trafficking


Full Text:

PDF

References


Daftar Pustaka

Anonim “Indonesia: Counter transnational organized crime and illicit trafficking”, dalam https://www.UNODC.org/indonesia/en/issues/counter-transnational-organized-crime-and-illicit-trafficking.html, diakses pada 2 Januari 2019.

Cottey and Foster. 2004. Reshaping Defence Diplomacy: New Roles for Military Cooperation and Assistance. Oxford University Press.

Creswell, John. 2009. Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches Third Edition. SAGE Publication.

Holsti, K. J. 1970. “National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy”. International Studies Quarterly. Kementerian Pertahanan, Rapat Sidang GBC Malindo”, dalam https://www.kemhan.go.id/strahan/2018/09/25/rapat-sidang-gbc-malindo.html , diakses pada 1 November 2018

Huberman, A. M., Miles, M. B. 2004. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publication

Laksamana TNI Ade Supandi, S. E., M.A.P, “Peran TNI AL dalam Menjaga Stabilitas Keamanan Maritim”, pada kuliah umum di Universitas Pertahanan, tanggal 15 Mei 2018.

Pedrason, Rodon. 2015. “ASEAN’s Defence Diplomacy: The Road to Southeast Asian Defence Community”

Suastha, Riva. Kunjungan Menlu Malaysia Tak Akan Hasilkan Pembaruan MoU TKI, dalam https://m.cnnindonesia.com/internasional/20180718165450-106-315139/kunjungan-menlu-malaysia-tak-akan-hasilkan-pembaruan-mou-tki, diakses pada 1 Agustus 2018.

Tagliacozzo, Eric. Secret Trades, Smuggling and States Along a Southeast Asian Frontier, 1865-1915 Porous Border. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Undang-Undang RI Nomor 21 Tahun 2007 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Perdagangan orang bagian Pendahuluan.

Wahyuni, Sari. 2012. Qualitative Research Method: Theory and Practice. Penerbit Salemba Empat.

Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. “The Theory of International Politics”, chapter 1.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v4i3.326

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Ethics in Publishing

Publishing ethics refers to COPE (Commitee on Publication Ethics) and Regulation of the Head of LIPI Number 5 of 2014 concerning the Code of Ethics for Scientific Publications.

This statement outlines the ethical behavior expected of all parties. The parties are related and obedient in their respective positions and roles: authors, editorial board, peer reviewers, and publishers, who are involved in publishing articles in this journal.

Author
Authors create articles. Authors should read the policies that apply to their contributions and the author's guidelines. Once a submission has reached the review stage, authors are not allowed to withdraw it. The author accepts editorial decisions voluntarily.

Editorial Board
The editor consists of the chief editor and staff as a unit. Editors grade manuscripts on intellectual merit alone, regardless of the author's rank, title, skin color, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, nationality, or political philosophy. Corresponding authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and publishers, as appropriate, are the only parties to whom any editor and editorial staff may divulge information about manuscripts that have been submitted. The editor chooses which article to publish. When reaching a choice, the editor can consult with other editors or reviewers.

Peer Reviewers

Peer review provides an assessment of the articles submitted by the editor. The reviewer's assessment results assist the editor in editing the assessment and can also help the author improve the article through the editorial communication with the author. Any selected reviewer who believes they lack the skills necessary to evaluate a manuscript or realizes that doing so quickly is impossible should notify the editor and withdraw from the review process. The review must be carried out impartially. It would be inappropriate to criticize the author personally. Referees must clearly state their position and provide evidence to support them. Any manuscript sent to you for review should be treated with confidentiality. They cannot be discussed or shown to anyone without the editor's permission. Reviewers must indicate related published work that the author still needs to cite. Suitable quotations must support any claim that specific observations, deductions, or arguments have been recorded. Any significant overlap or resemblance between the manuscript under consideration and other published material of which the reviewer has direct knowledge must be communicated to the editor.

 

Publisher
The publisher is the institution that publishes the journal. Universitas Pertahanan Press under the Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, publisher of this Journal of Defense Diplomacy. Moral and ethical obligations as publishers are aware of and take their duties and responsibilities seriously during and throughout the publication process. For publishing journals, publishers work closely with editorial boards to facilitate communication with other journals and publishers.


Alamat Dewan Redaksi:
Alamat: Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, RT.3/RW.6, Kenari, Kec. Senen,
Kota Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10430
Email: pertahanandiplomasi@gmail.com
Website: http://jurnalprodi.idu.ac.id/index.php/DP


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Diplomasi Pertahanan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


 View My StatCounter