Diplomasi Kebudayaan Dalam Mendukung Pencapaian Kepentingan Nasional dan Pertahanan Negara: Studi Program Indonesia Arts And Culture Scholarship (IACS) oleh Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia

Gelar Nanggala W.S.P., Makarim Wibisono, Supartono Supartono

Abstract


Abstrak -- Situasi politik global cenderung bersifat dinamis. Setiap negara di dunia dituntut untuk selalu siap dalam mengambil tindakan demi memperjuangkan kepentingan nasionalnya. Tindakan setiap negara cenderung mengikuti tren dan situasi tataran global yang tengah terjadi. Untuk itu setiap negara dituntut untuk selalu siap dalam menghadapi segala tantangan, termasuk potensi ancaman. Bentuk ancaman pun kini menunjukkan pergeseran, dari ancaman tradisional yang bersifat militer, menjadi ancaman nontradisional yang lebih kompleks. Dalam menyikapi bentuk ancaman-ancaman tersebut Indonesia memiliki sistem pertahanan semesta,  yang berarti memadukan segala sumber daya nasional sebagai unsur kekuatan pertahanan. Tidak hanya kekuatan militer saja yang diperlukan, kekuatan nirmiliter juga memiliki peran tersendiri dalam sistem pertahanan negara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat bagaimana peran IACS yang merupakan program tahunan Kementerian Luar Negeri RI sebagai kekuatan pertahanan nirmiliter, dapat mendukung upaya pencapaian kepentingan nasional. Disamping itu, analisis pada kontribusi terhadap pertahanan negara, khususnya pertahanan nirmiliter yang diberikan program IACS ini juga menjadi tujuan penelitian ini. Penelitian ini disusun menggunakan metode kualitatif, sementara data yang dibutuhkan diperoleh melalui rangkaian wawancara dan studi literatur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa IACS mendukung pencapaian kepentingan nasional dengan membentuk citra positif negara, mempererat bahkan membangun hubungan bilateral maupun multilateral, hingga mendukung upaya perwujudan perdamaian dunia. Dari perspektif pertahanan negara, IACS berkontribusi melalui aktifitas people to people contact yang meningkatkan kesepahaman antara Indonesia dengan negara-negara lain, sehingga meminimalisir terjadinya konflik. Selain itu, aktifitas people to people juga meningkatkan CBM yang dimiliki Indonesia dengan pihak internasional, serta membantu terciptanya kerjasama. Meski begitu, masih diperlukan adanya koordinasi dan sinergitas antara Kemenlu dengan stakeholder terkait agar program ini lebih efisien, efektif, dan tepat sasaran.

Kata kunci: CBM, Diplomasi, IACS, Kebudayaan, Kemenlu, Kepentingan Nasional, Pertahanan

 

Abstract -- The global politic that we’re having is always dynamic. Thus, every single nation should be very prepared in taking any action in order to defend its national interest. Moreover, each nation must be able to face any form of challenges, including the potential threat. A shifting in terms of threat is also found, where a traditional threats that mostly come up in a form of military threats, turn into a non-traditional threats which are more complex if it’s compared to the other one. As a response to this reality, Indonesia uses its total defense system, which involving all the national resources as their defense force essential. Aside from military force, nonmilitary force holds a significant role for the national defense system as well. Therefore, this research is conducted to see how IACS, an annual program brought by the Ministry of Foreign Affair of Indonesia, takes role as a non-military defense force in supporting the national interest. Other than that, this research aims to reveal how IACS contributes in the national defense, specifically as a non-military force. The method used in this study is qualitative, while numbers of interviews and literature studies are have been taken in order to obtain the data. The result shows that IACS supports Indonesia’s national interest by constructing positive image of Indonesia to worldwide, strengthening and even creating the bilateral and multilateral affair, and also the embodiment of world peace. From the perspective of national defense, people to people contact activity resulted by IACS increases better understanding among nations, which minimizes the potential of conflicts. Furthermore, people to people contact activity contributes in escalating Indonesia’s CBM, which led to international cooperation. Nevertheless, the writer thinks that a better coordination and synergy between the Ministry of Foreign Affair of Indonesia and related stakeholders are needed, so that this program could run more efficiently, effectively, and hit the target perfectly.

Keywords: CBM, Culture, Defense, Diplomacy, IACS, MoFA, National Interest


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v4i3.329

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