Meitty Josephin Balontia, H.M. Halkis, A Setyo Wibowo


Abstrak -- Dalam menghadapi berbagai tantangan, Indonesia perlu meningkatkan kekuatannya. Poros Maritim Dunia sebagai sebuah grand strategy melingkupi seluruh kekuatan nasional baik pertahanan, ekonomi, maupun diplomasi. Dalam konsep kekuatan / power, setidaknya ada tiga jenis power yang dipakai oleh sebuah negara yakni, militer (hard power), kekuatan ekonomi, dan soft power. Ketiganya penting dalam menghadapi berbagai tantangan termasuk didalamnya tantangan yang datang melalui hadirnya Belt and Road Initiative. Belt and Road Initiative sebagai inisiatif konektivitas antar negara terbesar jelas membawa tantangan tetapi juga peluang bagi Indonesia. Indonesia dengan upaya nya untuk membangun konektivitas maritim dan wilayah perairan dapat memanfaatkan kehadiran Belt and Road Initiative terutama dalam hal pembiayaan dan teknologi. Akan tetapi, usaha untuk menangkap peluang tersebut harus diimbangi dengan kemampuan untuk meminimalisir tantangan yang mungkin muncul. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan bagaimana Poros Maritim Dunia sebagai sebuah grand strategy mampu menjawab tantangan serta peluang yang datang dari Belt and Road Initiative. Serta, bagaimana diplomasi pertahanan sebagai bagian dari soft power Indonesia mampu mengupayakan antisipasi terhadap penggunaan hard power Tiongkok sekaligus mengangkat peluang yang bisa didapatkan dari kerjasama antara Indonesia dan Tiongkok dalam bingkai Belt and Road Initiative. Dengan menggunakan penelitian kualitatif fenomenologis, peneliti mencoba mencari makna dan pola kekuatan yang terdapat baik dalam Poros Maritim Dunia, Belt and Road Initiative, maupun dalam relasi keduanya. Dalam penelitian ini ditemukan bahwa grand strategy Poros Maritim Dunia efektif dalam menghadapi Belt and Road Initiative dengan meningkatkan serta menggunakan kekuatan yang ada termasuk diplomasi pertahanan.

Kata Kunci: grand strategy, poros maritim dunia, belt and road initiative, power, hard power, soft power, peluang, tantangan


Abstract -- To overcome various challenges, Indonesia needs to increase its powers. The Global Maritime Fulcrum as a grand strategy covers all national powers, including defense, economy and diplomacy. In the concept of power, there are three types of powers that being used by the state which is, military (hard power), economic power, and soft power. All of them are important to face various challenges including challenges that come through the presence of Belts and Road Initiatives. The Belt and Road initiative as a largest inter connectivity across nations clearly present not only challenges but also opportunities for Indonesia. Indonesia’s effort to build and improve its maritime connectivity can take advantage of Belt and Road Initiative in terms of funding and technology.  However, Indonesia’s effort to get these opportunities must be balanced with the ability to minimize the challenges that might arise. This research shows how  the Global Maritime Fulcrum as a grand strategy can answer both challenges and opportunities of Belt and Road Initiative. And  how defense diplomacy as part of Indonesia's soft power is able to anticipate the using of China's hard power while raising opportunities that can be obtained from cooperation between Indonesia and China in the frame of the Belt and Road Initiative. By using phenomenological qualitative research, researcher try to find the meaning and pattern of power in the Global Maritime Fulcrum, Belt and Road Initiative, and in their relation. In this study it was found that the Global Maritime Fulcrum Grand Strategy was effective in dealing with the Belt and Road Initiative by increasing and using its powers including defense diplomacy.

Keywords: grand strategy, global maritime fulcrum, belt and road initiatives, power, hard power, soft power, opportunities, challenges

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