Diplomasi Maritim Indonesia Terhadap Aktivitas Penangkapan Ikan Ilegal (Illegal Fishing) oleh Nelayan China di ZEE Perairan Kepulauan Natuna

Ela Riska


Abstrak - ZEE Indonesia di perairan Kepulauan Natuna merupakan wilayah Indonesia yang kaya akan sumber daya alam, diantaranya perikanan. Wilayah ini juga berbatasan langsung dengan Laut China Selatan yang sedang dipersengketakan oleh China dan beberapa negara ASEAN. China berupaya mengklaim LCS termasuk ZEEI perairan Natuna sebagai traditional fishing ground China. Perbedaan persepsi tersebut menimbulkan gangguan keamanan maritim yang terlihat melalui adanya berbagai insiden yang terjadi ketika aparat penegak hukum Indonesia berupaya melakukan penindakan hukum terhadap nelayan China yang melakukan pelanggaran illegal fishing di ZEEI perairan Kepulauan Natuna. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis diplomasi maritim Indonesia dalam menyelesaikan kasus illegal fishing yang dilakukan oleh nelayan China di ZEEI perairan Kepulauan Natuna pada kurun tahun 2009 hingga 2016. Selanjutnya, dengan menggunakan diplomasi maritim sebagai unit analisis, penelitian ini berupaya merumuskan bentuk diplomasi maritim Indonesia terhadap masalah illegal fishing oleh nelayan China di ZEEI perairan Kepulauan Natuna. Studi ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus, dengan metode pengumpulan data diantaranya melalui wawancara dengan sebelas narasumber. Berdasarkan hasil olah data dengan menggunakan metode analisis SWOT dan metode analisis data Miles dan Huberman ditemukan bahwa upaya diplomasi maritim terhadap kasus illegal fishing oleh nelayan China di ZEEI perairan Kepulauan Natuna dapat diperankan oleh maritime forces dan pemerintah. Adapun diplomasi maritim yang dapat diimplementasikan antaralain dalam bentuk cooperative maritime diplomacy dan persuasive maritime diplomacy.

Kata kunci: Diplomasi maritim, Penangkapan ikan ilegal, ZEEI, Nelayan China


Abstract - Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone in the Natuna Islands waters is rich in natural resources, including fisheries. The area is also directly adjacent to the South China Sea that now is being disputed by China and several ASEAN countries. China is attempting to claim Indonesian EEZ in Natuna waters as China's traditional fishing grounds. The perception differences cause instability to Indonesian maritime security, that is visible through the various incidents occurred when Indonesian law enforcement officials attempted to taking legal action when Chinese fishermen practicing illegal fishing in the Indonesian EEZ in Natuna Islands waters. The purpose of this study is to analyze the efforts of Indonesia to resolve cases of illegal fishing by Chinese fishermen in the Indonesian EEZ in Natuna Islands during the period of 2009 to 2016. Using maritime diplomacy concept as its unit of analysis, this study seeks to define what kind of form of maritime diplomacy that can be implemented by Indonesia to solve the problem of illegal fishing by Chinese fishermen in the Indonesian EEZ in Natuna Islands waters. This study uses a qualitative method with case study design, data collection method such as through interviews with eleven speakers. Based on the results using SWOT analysis method and the data analysis of Miles and Huberman method can be found that maritime diplomacy efforts on cases of illegal fishing carried out by Chinese fishermen in the waters of Natuna Islands ZEEI can be played by maritime forces and the government. The maritime diplomacy can be implemented in the form of cooperative maritime diplomacy and persuasive diplomacy.

Keywords: Maritime diplomacy, Illegal fishing, ZEEI, Chinese Fishermen

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Daftar Pustaka

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jdp.v3i2.87


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