• Astelita Megani Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia
  • S. Pantja Djati
  • Supandi Supandi


Abstract? Human capital is one of the most important components in national defense because it includes the availability of manpower. Countries with large populations tend to rank higher in terms of defense forces. The population of Indonesia estimated to increase by 305.6 million in 2035 and will dominated by people in productive age. This period is referred as the demographic bonus and it is an opportunity to accelerate development, especially in the areas of both military and non-military defense. This study aims to analyze strategies owned by Indonesia, India and China in utilizing demographic dividend to develop national defense. The method used in this research is qualitative research method with comparative analysis. Research data obtained through primary data analysis and secondary data analysis and interview. The results show that China and India are better in preparation to face the demographic transition and to take advantage of the demographic bonus period to build national defense. India has the National Skill Development Council and National Skill Development Agency as coordinator who responsible for improving the productivity and skill of the population. India’s strategy include developing taskforce for defense reform, developing Civil Defense Policy of the Government of India, improving defense technology, and training elite forces. Furthermore, the strategy undertaken by China is to develop National Military Objectives (NMOs), and The National Military Strategic Concepts (NMSC) through the use of resources called National Military Resources (NMR). While Indonesia focused on the empowerment of human resources as a supporting component in national defense through the development of the awareness of nationalism and patriotism

Keywords: national defense, demographic dividend, strategy, human capital


Asian Development Bank. (2015). Human capital development in the People’s Republic of China and India: Achievements, prospects, and policy challenges. Mandaluyong City, Philippines.

Badan Pusat Statistik (2013), Proyeksi Penduduk Indonesia 2010-2035. Jakarta: BPS

Bekkevold, J. I., Bowers, I., & Raska, M. (2015). Security, strategy, and military change in the 21st century. New York: Routledge

Ernst & Young (2013). Reaping India’s promised demographic dividend

Hattendorf, J. (2000). Naval History and Maritime Strategy. Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Kementerian Pertahanan. (2015). Buku Putih Pertahanan Indonesia. Jakarta: Kemhan

Kohler, H. P. & Behrman, J. R. (2014). Population and demography: Benefits and costs of the population and demography targets for the post-2015 development agenda. Copenhagen Consensus Project: Post-2015 Consensus, URL

Simon, D. F, Cao, C. (2009). China’s Emerging Technological Edge. UK: Cambridge University Press

Supriyatno, M. (2014). Tentang Ilmu Pertahanan, (Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia)

Tracy, S.J. (2013). Qualitative Research Method: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Comunicating Impact. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Wang, F. (2014). Demographic dividend and prospect for economic development in China. University of California

Yudhoyono, S. B. (2016). Geopolitik dan Keamanan Asia Pasifik. Kuliah Umum. Sentul: Kampus Universitas Pertahanan